Warning: OS X Yosemite uses Core Storage for partitions

Core StorageMany users around the net have been realizing after installing the OS X Yosemite beta the partitions on their hard drive were converted to Logical Volumes. I’m not entirely sure why Apple chose to do this, but it makes resizing and deleting partitions on the fly 10x harder! I haven’t found a good solution as of this writing, but make sure you are aware of this!

Apple introduced “Core Storage” with the release of OS X 10.7 Lion. All Fusion drives use Core Storage. A Fusion drive is pretty much just an SSD and traditional spinning hard drive combined into one logical drive. Normally these drives would show up separately, but with the help of Core Storage, they can be turned into one logical volume. It’s possible to create your own Fusion Drive with a separate SSD and HDD by using Core Storage. There are a few tutorials around the web that can help with this. I’ve created 3 of my own “Fusion Drives” using these guides.

Creating a USB installer for OS X Yosemite Beta


Some people have ran into a problem with creating a bootable USB installer for the Yosemite Beta. The script located in the Installer app called “createinstallmedia” does not work quite yet on Yosemite like it did in Mavericks. I kept getting an error that told me my volume wasn’t a valid mount point.

After doing some research, I came across a post on MacRumors.com that had a workaround. Just run the following commands in Terminal and you’ll be good to go!

sudo hdiutil attach /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ 10.10\ Developer\ Preview.app/Contents/SharedSupport/InstallESD.dmg
sudo asr restore -source /Volumes/OS\ X\ Install\ ESD/BaseSystem.dmg -target /Volumes/Untitled -erase -format HFS+
sudo rm /Volumes/OS\ X\ Base\ System/System/Installation/Packages
sudo cp -a /Volumes/OS\ X\ Install\ ESD/Packages /Volumes/OS\ X\ Base\ System/System/Installation/Packages
sudo cp -a /Volumes/OS\ X\ Install\ ESD/BaseSystem.dmg /Volumes/OS\ X\ Install\ ESD/BaseSystem.chunklist /Volumes/OS\ X\ Base\ System

Make sure to change “/Volumes/Untitled” to the correct name of the disk you are trying to install it on!

Happy OS beta testing!

How to Customize an Ubuntu Installation Disc – The Right Way (14.04 Compatible!)

This disappeared off this blog earlier this month, so I thought I’d repost it here. I take no credit for any of this.

If you’re like me, you’ve wanted to customize an Ubuntu install DVD for a long time – but all the tools/directions for doing it are out of date and/or broken. Look no further!

I have successfully customized an ISO of Xubuntu 14.04 for my project Builduntu but this guide should work for just about any flavor of Ubuntu, maybe even other Linux distributions. If you aren’t sure, give it a try! Mint and Debian are very similar and may work with minimal changes to the commands (ie, replace apt-get with whatever package manager the particular distro uses). It helps if the distro you want to customize is the same as what you are running currently, but is not necessary.


Let’s get to it.

First download the ISO you’d like to start customizing from Ubuntu’s release server here. Remember where you save it, because you’re going to have to move it in a minute.

From here on out, it’s bash command line. Don’t worry, it’s the easiest way of doing this (for now). You don’t need to be a Linux guru, just pay close attention to the directions and it will work fine.

Make sure the prerequisite software is installed for unpacking and repacking the image. Open a terminal and run:

sudo apt-get install squashfs-tools genisoimage

Create a fresh folder to begin work. For the purposes of this guide, everything will be done from the starting point of the user’s home directory (indicated in Linux by a tilde “~”). Approximately 10 gigabytes total of free hard drive space is required for decompressing the ISO filesystem and repackaging it at the end.

mkdir ~/custom-img

Move the base ISO downloaded in the first step to the working directory. From here on out, replace “ubuntu.iso” with the name of the image downloaded from the Ubuntu Release server ex. trusty-desktop-amd64.iso

mv /path/to/saved/ubuntu.iso ~/custom-img
cd ~/custom-img

Next, extract the contents of disc image.

mkdir mnt
sudo mount -o loop ubuntu.iso mnt
mkdir extract
sudo rsync --exclude=/casper/filesystem.squashfs -a mnt/ extract

Here’s where things start to get interesting. Extract the filesystem with the following commands:

sudo unsquashfs mnt/casper/filesystem.squashfs
sudo mv squashfs-root edit

You’re going to need network access from within the chroot environment to download and install updated/new packages. Essentially what’s happening is you are going to “log in” to a command line instance of the Ubuntu installation, separate from the host system. Perhaps a confusing concept to wrap your head around at first, but it makes sense when you think about it. Copy resolv.conf from your system into the freshly unpacked fs.

sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf edit/etc/

Mount a few important working directories:

sudo mount --bind /dev/ edit/dev
sudo chroot edit
mount -t proc none /proc
mount -t sysfs none /sys
mount -t devpts none /dev/pts

Now you are actually logged in to the installation instance as root. Neat. Before making changes, a few commands will make sure that everything goes smoothly while modifying packages.

export HOME=/root
export LC_ALL=C
dbus-uuidgen > /var/lib/dbus/machine-id
dpkg-divert --local --rename --add /sbin/initctl
ln -s /bin/true /sbin/initctl

OK, now you can start playing around. This guide is only going to cover adding and removing software, but it’s possible to customize just about anything. Things like custom backgrounds and settings are already documented elsewhere, but be careful! Many of the directions are outdated and the commands may need slight alterations to work correctly. I had to piece this guide together from a few different sources with a whole lot of dead reckoning.

Start by removing the packages you don’t want. Be sure to use the “purge” command so that the system will automatically uninstall and delete the package, which optimizes the space required for the ISO. When you execute purge, read the list of programs to be removed before you select “Y” and make absolutely sure you haven’t accidentally flagged a core system package via association.You will recognize this because the list will contain significantly more packages than those you selected.

apt-get purge package1 package2 package3

I personally remove games, scanning utilities (I don’t have a scanner) and default text editors like abiword and mousepad (geany is the best). Stay away from core components unless you know what you are doing.

Since I am customizing a 64-bit Ubuntu image, I need multiarch (i386) support for some of the programming libraries. The following command is not necessary for everyone, but I recommend it anyway.

dpkg --add-architecture i386

Update the software repositories and upgrade the remaining packages on the system.

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

Add packages to the system the usual way:

apt-get install package1 package2 package3

You are almost there! Time to clean up:

apt-get autoremove && apt-get autoclean
rm -rf /tmp/* ~/.bash_history
rm /var/lib/dbus/machine-id
rm /sbin/initctl
dpkg-divert --rename --remove /sbin/initctl

Unmount the directories from the beginning of this guide:

umount /proc || umount -lf /proc
umount /sys
umount /dev/pts
sudo umount edit/dev

You have now “logged out” of the installation environment and are “back” on the host system. These final steps will actually produce the ISO. Other guides stop working at this point, but have no fear! The following commands have been tested and verified.

Generate a new file manifest:

sudo chmod +w extract/casper/filesystem.manifest

sudo chroot edit dpkg-query -W --showformat='${Package} ${Version}\n' > extract-cd/casper/filesystem.manifest
(Note: You may need to be logged in as root to run the above command. I kept getting a permission denied error with only using the sudo).

sudo cp extract/casper/filesystem.manifest extract/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop

sudo sed -i '/ubiquity/d' extract/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop

sudo sed -i '/casper/d' extract/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop

Compress the filesystem:

sudo mksquashfs edit extract/casper/filesystem.squashfs -b 1048576

Update filesystem size (needed by the installer):

printf $(sudo du -sx --block-size=1 edit | cut -f1) | sudo tee extract/casper/filesystem.size

Delete the old md5sum:

cd extract
sudo rm md5sum.txt

…and generate a fresh one: (single command, copy and paste in one piece)

find -type f -print0 | sudo xargs -0 md5sum | grep -v isolinux/boot.cat | sudo tee md5sum.txt

And finally, create the ISO. This is a single long command, be sure to copy and paste it in one piece and don’t forget the period at the end, it’s important:

sudo mkisofs -D -r -V "$IMAGE_NAME" -cache-inodes -J -l -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o ../name-of-your-custom-image.iso .

It takes a few minutes, but when that is done you will have a burnable/distributable ISO in your working directory (~/custom-img)

Have fun and good luck! Let me know how customizing works out for you!

OS X 10.9.4 Update

I know this is a couple weeks late, but for those wondering, the OS X 10.9.4 update is safe on a 2006/2007 Mac Pro that’s hacked to run Mavericks. There’s no need to replace the modified boot.efi file if you’re going from 10.9.3 to 10.9.4. But, if you are using a combo updater (i.e. from 10.9.2 to 10.9.4), you will need to replace the boot.efi file.

I will write a script soon that will allow you to boot up on the Recovery Partition and run a script from Terminal to automatically replace the bootloader files. Stay tuned…